by Richard W. Hughes
Ruby, Pink Sapphire & Padparadscha • Walking the Line • Lotus Gemology

An examination of the problem of separating pink sapphire and padparadscha from ruby.

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by Richard W. Hughes, John Koivula & Warren Boyd
Emeralds from Russia • A Closer Look • Lotus Gemology

A brief look at the famous emerald and alexandrite from Russia's Ural Mountain mines.

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by John I. Koivula & Richard W. Hughes
Testing Yellow Sapphire • Passport to Obscurity • Lotus Gemology

The examination of a yellow sapphire provides a lesson in the power of gemological microscopy.

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by Richard W. Hughes & John I. Koivula
Seeing Red • Genetics & Color Vision • Lotus Gemology

Do men and women have the same ability to see red? The answer might shock you.

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by Richard W. Hughes
The Skin Game • Beryllium Diffusion in Sapphire

The early history of beryllium diffusion in sapphire, starting with the 2001 appearance of large numbers of padparadscha sapphires in the Thai gem market.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Pleochroism in Faceted Gems • An Introduction • Lotus Gemology

The phenomenon of pleochroism in doubly refractive (DR) gemstones is described, as it relates to overall color appearance in the context of faceted gems. With strongly pleochroic gems, pleochroism can be seen in faceted gems, even if the table facet is oriented perpendicular to an optic axis. This is because facets change the direction of light as it moves through the gem.

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by Richard W. Hughes & Fred Ward
Heaven and Hell • The Quest for Jade in Upper Burma

The authors give an account of their epic 1997 visit to Burma's jade mines.

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by Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, Mark Smith & Dr. Thet Oo
Tracing the Green Line • A Journey to Burma’s Jade Mines

In 1996, several gemologists set off for Burma's remote jade mines, the first visit by foreigners since the early 1960's. This is the story of their epic journey.

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by Richard W. Hughes & Nickolai Kouznetsov
From Russia with Jade

Jadeite jade is a stone intimately associated with Burma (Myanmar). But there are deposits in other countries. This article details Russia's jadeite deposits in the Polar Urals and Khakassia.

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by Richard W. Hughes & U Hla Win
Burmese Sapphire Giants

A brief history of Burmese (Myanmar) sapphires, along with details of some of the major pieces of yore.

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