by E. Billie Hughes

Oil treatment has a significant impact on the appearance of an apatite.

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by Wimon Manorotkul

Hogbomite-filled dislocations in a Vietnamese spinel.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Spinel with maze-like fingerprint.

A web-like fingerprint creates a maze-like pattern in spinel.

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by Wimon Manorotkul
Bubbling Up • Carbon Dioxide in Sapphire

The internal world never fails to amaze, as witnessed by this incredible video of a negative crystal in a Sri Lanka sapphire.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Made You Look • The Challenges of Identifying Inclusions at First Sight

This article discusses the challenges of identifying inclusions based on observation alone. While certain features can help narrow down the possibilities, other methods such as micro Raman help identify inclusions with a greater degree of certainty.

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by Richard W. Hughes
Oiled Spinel • A Shocking Revelation

When a red spinel and a tanzanite were submitted for testing, oil was found in the fissures. Removal of the oil resulted in a startling deterioration in clarity.

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by Richard W. Hughes, E. Billie Hughes & Wimon Manorotkul
Black Star Sapphire Surprise

A large black star sapphire was brought in for testing. Two large pits on the base were carefully filled with brown dopping varnish. After removal of the varnish with alcohol, it was found that a large portion of the base had been filled with a lead glass.

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by Richard Hughes
Ruby & Sapphire Books • Collecting the Literature of Ruby & Sapphire (Corundum) • Hidden Treasure

A discussion of the literature of ruby and sapphire (corundum), with particular emphasis on the most collectible books covering ruby and sapphire around the world.

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by E. Billie Hughes
Long-Wave Ultraviolet Torches: A Gemologist’s New Best Friend

This article discusses the use of handheld long-wave ultraviolet torches with the microscope. It has been found that these have tremendous utility in identifying and characterizing certain oiled gemstones, such as emerald, tourmaline, etc.

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by Richard W. Hughes & Wimon Manorotkul
FTIR in Gem Testing • A Pink Sapphire Lesson

A discussion of DRIFTS vs the Beam Condenser FTIR attachment in the testing of pink sapphire. The DRIFTS accessory is generally much better at unmasking heat treatment in ruby and sapphire.

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